Objectives for CHM 114 Final Exam 1. Convert from a measurement from one unit to another. Know the metric units and meaning of prefixes. 2. Classify matter as an element compound or mixture when given a molecular-level or symbolic representation. 3. Determine the isotope symbol when given numbers of protons and neutrons or determine numbers of protons and neutrons from an isotope symbol. 4. Given the symbol for an ion determine numbers of protons and electrons. 5. Write the name of a molecular or ionic compound from its name. Write the correct formula for a compound from its name. 6. Know the formulas and charges of the common monatomic ions and polyatomic ions listed in the Ch. 2 Learning Objectives list in the Chapter 2 content area on Blackboard. 7. Differentiate between molecular and ionic compounds in terms of composition and atomic-level structure (molecules verses lattices). 8. Predict products and balance equations for combination reactions single-displacement reactions double-displacement reactions and combustion of hydrocarbon reactions. 9. Determine mass percent composition for a compound from its formula. 10. Determine the empirical formula for a compound from its molecular formula or its percent composition. 11. Determine the number of molecules atoms or ions in a given mass or mole quantity of an element or compound. 12. Perform calculations for solution concentrations involving molarity and percent-by-mass concentration. 13. Perform stoichiometric calculations to determine moles mass molarity or volume of a reactant or product. This includes limiting reactant situations. 14. Determine the oxidation number for an element in an element compound or polyatomic ion. 15. Write a balanced equation for the dissolving of a soluble ionic compound in water. 16. Calculate heat change (q) mass specific heat or temperature change when given three of the four values. 17. Determine the sign ofDH for any physical state change (also called phase change). 18. Define endothermic and exothermic processes. 19. Use Hess’s Law to determineDH° for a reaction when given thermochemical equations that can be manipulated and combined to given the reaction of interest. Determine the heat change for any scale reaction given a thermochemical reaction. 20. Relate relative electron transitions in an atom to the absorption or emission of light (in terms of wavelength frequency and photon energy). 21. Write the ground-state electron configuration for any element or ion and describe the arrangement of electrons in specific orbitals subshells and shells. 22. Determine the number of valence electrons for any atom and describe their significance in terms of availability for bonding or ionization. 23. Use periodic trends to predict relative values of first ionization energy atomic radii and electronegativity. 24. Draw Lewis structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Follow the octet rule when possible. Know when expanded octets incomplete octets or odd number of electrons occur. 25. Describe a Lewis structure in terms of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs sigma and pi bonding (localized or delocalized) and type and numbers of hybridized orbitals. 26. Describe resonance in terms of pi bonding and its effect on bond length. 27. Determine the electron-domain geometry molecular shape and approximate bond angles for a molecule or polyatomic ion. Determine relative bond polarity direction of dipoles and overall molecular polarity. 28. Define paramagnetic and diamagnetic in terms of electronic structure and macroscopic magnetic properties. 29. Predict relative boiling points or vapor pressures for molecular substances. Identify the type(s) of intermolecular forces in a given substance. 30. Interpret a phase diagram by identifying the solid liquid and gas regions and where phase changes occur in terms of temperature and pressure. 31. Use gas laws to predict pressure volume temperature or moles given initial and final conditions or three of the four variables. 32. Under what conditions does gas density or molar volume vary? Calculate the density of a specific gas at a given temperature and pressure. Calculate molar volume of an ideal gas at a given temperature and pressure. Calculate molar mass of a gas from P T V and mass of sample. 33. Use kinetic molecular theory to describe the behavior of gas particles. How does average kinetic energy and molecular velocity vary with temperature and with gas particle mass? 34. Describe how the differences in bonding for solids influence physical properties such as melting points and conductivity. 35. Describe cubic unit cells in terms of numbers of atoms per unit cell. 36. Semiconductors: Identify elements and compounds that should be semiconductors and explain this property in terms of band theory. 37. Describe how doping of semiconductors changes their conductivity. 38. Explain how the solubility of a gas varies with gas pressure and temperature. 39. Use the rule “like-dissolves-like” to determine most soluble solute in a given solvent. 40. Understand how the term solubility is used to describe saturated and unsaturated solutions. How can a saturated solution be prepared? 41. Know how freezing point and boiling point change when an ionic compound is dissolved in the solvent? 42. Describe reaction rate in terms of the change in concentration of a reactant or product. Given the rate of change of a reactant or product determine the rate of change of another reaction species. 43. Use initial concentration and initial rate data to determine the rate law for a chemical reaction. Understand the significance of a rate law. Predict how reaction rate will change when concentrations are changed. 44. Write the equilibrium constant expression for a homogeneous or heterogeneous equilibrium. Know the significance of the value of the equilibrium constant Kc. Under what conditions does the value of the equilibrium constant change? 45. What does the reaction quotient Q tell us? 46. Use the Le Chatelier’s principle to predict how a reaction will respond to a stress (change in concentration volume pressure temperature) that disrupts its equilibrium. For a given shift describe how concentrations change. 47. Define Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and predict the products of a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction. 48. Convert between pH [H3O ] and [OH-]. Given any of these values identify the solution as acidic basic or neutral. 49. Describe the difference between a strong acid and weak acid in terms of degree of dissociation. 50. Know the common strong acids and bases listed in the Chapter 16 Learning objectives. 51. Define entropy and predict the sign ofDS for a given chemical change phase change or other physical change. 52. How does reaction spontaneity relate to the entropy change of the universe? How doesDG relate to the entropy change of the universe? 53. Use the equationDG =DH-TDS to predict spontaneity for a reaction. Under what conditions ofDH andDS is a reaction nonspontaneous at all temperature values? Under what conditions ofDH andDS is a reaction spontaneousat all temperature values? Under what conditions ofDH andDS is a reaction spontaneousonly at high temperatures? Under what conditions ofDH andDS is a reaction spontaneousat low temperature values? 54. How does the sign ofDG° relate to the value of the equilibrium constant Kc and to the sign of a reaction potential E°rxn? (Remember that the standard free energy change (DG°) describes the spontaneity of a reaction when starting with reactants AND products in standard states (1 M 1 atm pressure or pure liquids or solids). 55. Given a balanced equation identify the oxidizing and reducing agents. Determine the oxidation numbers for all elements in reactants and products in a redox reaction. Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxidation number change and gain or loss of electrons. 56. Describe voltaic cell components (and the processes that occur): anode cathode salt bridge external wire. 57. Given standard reduction potentials for half reactions identify what is most easily oxidized and what is most easily reduced. Combine two reduction half reactions to give a spontaneous redox reaction and calculate E°cell. 58. Use the Nernst equation to calculate the nonstandard cell potential Ecell. What changes can cause the cell potential to increase? Decrease?