Unit ActivityChemistryUnit 6: Nuclear Chemistry and BiochemistryThis Unit Activity will help you meet these educational goals:STEM—You will use analytical thinking use math skills for calculations and solveproblems. You will apply your scientific knowledge to a real-world energy and designissue.21st Century Skills—You will use research skills analysis critical thinking and problemsolvingIntroductionAs a modern technologically-advanced society we use a lot of energy. At the same timewe’re concerned with how our energy usage impacts our environment. Currently there’sinterest in finding new and alternative energy sources that are affordable efficient sustainable and environmentally-friendly. In this activity you will apply what you know aboutnuclear reactions to an analysis and research project. You will investigate why there’s somuch debate around fission and fusion and will summarize the risks and benefits of thesenuclear reactions.In this activity you will research and analyze fission and fusion reactions. You will be providedwith specific fission and fusion reactions and will complete an energy analysis of eachreaction with a variety of calculations. You will write an analysis of the specific fission andfusion reactions as well as a summary of the risks and benefits associated with fission andfusion reactions and you will write a conclusion that states your opinion regarding the viabilityof using nuclear reactions as an energy source.__________________________________________________________________________Directions and AnalysisTask 1: Research fusion and fission reactions1. Conduct research into the viability of fusion and fission reactions as energy sources.a. Carry out online research on the advantages and disadvantages of each type ofnuclear reaction. You might start with the links provided in the Resources section thendo a web search or library research for any further information you need. Record anyadditional sources you used in the Resources section below.b. Gather information and take notes during you research.c. In your web research investigate the following three nuclear reactions:deuterium-tritium fusion reactionuranium-235 fission reactionplutonium-239 fission reaction1© 2013 EDMENTUM INC. As you research these reactions investigate the following:Why is the deuterium-tritium reaction the most promising nuclear fusion reactionfor future energy production?Why is uranium-235 the most commonly used isotope for nuclear fission incurrent use in nuclear power generation?Why is it advantageous to produce plutonium-239?Task 2: CalculationsComplete the calculations for each nuclear reaction listed below.1. Deuterium-Tritium Fusion ReactionGiven: Energy released = 17.59 MeV per deuterium/tritium reaction pair (mass = 5amu)a. List the balanced nuclear reaction.Type your response here:b. Determine the energy released per kilogram of fuel used.Given MeV per reaction calculate energy in joules per kilogram of reactants.Consider 1 mole of tritium plus 1 mole of deuterium to be a mole of “reactions”(total molar mass = 5 grams).Type your response here:c. Determine the mass of fuel required for the expected energy consumption in theUnited States for the next ten years.Energy use per person per year in the United States = 3.5 x 1011JoulesBase calculations on current population of 310 000 000.Type your response here:2. Uranium-235 FissionGiven: Energy released = About 200 MeV per individual reaction (mass = 235 amu)a. Find the balanced nuclear reaction.2 Type your response here:b. Determine the energy released per kilogram of fuel used.Given MeV per reaction calculate energy in joules per kilogram of reactants.Consider 1 mole of uranium-235 to be a mole of “reactions” (molar mass = 235grams).Type your response here:c. Determine the mass of fuel required for the expected energy consumption in theUnited States for the next ten years.Energy use per person per year in the United States = 3.5 x 1011JoulesBase calculations on current population of 310 000 000Type your response here:3. Plutonium-235Given: Energy released = About 200 MeV per individual reaction (mass = 239 amu)a. List the balanced nuclear reaction.Type your response here:b. Determine the energy released per kilogram of fuel used.Given MeV per reaction calculate energy in joules per kilogram of reactants.Consider 1 mole of plutonium-239 to be a mole of “reactions” (molar mass = 239grams).Type your response here:c. Determine the mass of fuel required for the expected energy consumption in theUnited States for the next ten years.Energy use per person per year in the United States = 3.5 x 1011JoulesBase calculations on current population of 310 000 0003 Type your response here:Task 3: Analysis and ConclusionsWrite a summary of your findings from the calculations section above. This summary shouldinclude information from your research and a discussion of the pros and cons of eachalternative. Your summary should include the following:Discussion of the results of your calculationsDiscussion of the amount of fuel resources that are available for each type ofreactionConclusion that makes your case for or against the use of nuclear reactions as anenergy source1. Summarize the results of your calculations from task 2.Type your response here:2. Discuss the pros and cons of fission and fusion reactions based on your research.Type your response here:3. Write your conclusions as to which nuclear reaction is the best alternative energy source.Type your response here:4 __________________________________________________________________________ResourcesUse these resources to better understand the activity at hand and to help in your tasks.Conversions:1MeV = 1.6 x 10-13 JEnergy use per person per year in the United States = 3.5 x 1011Joules(estimated varies by source August 2009)Approximate population of USA: 310 000 000Links:Physics referenceNuclear powerList additional resources you use:5 ___________________________________________________________________EvaluationThis project will be evaluated on a rubric that is based on the completeness clarity andthinking you exhibit in the Directions and Analysis section above.10 points possible:Calculations: 5 points maximumAnalysis and conclusions: 5 points maximumBoth tasks use this scoring rubric for a maximum of 10 points total:Calculations: 5 pointsAccurate clearly communicated:Calculations:Energy released perkilogram of fuel usedMass of fuel required forenergy consumption in theU.S.All necessary conversionsbetween measurementunitsAnalysis and conclusions: 5 pointsDemonstrates a full understandingof the nuclear reaction processEmploys scientific knowledge notpresented in the activitySynthesizes and analyzesinformation and forms a completeargumentSummarizes pros and cons in acomprehensive manner that flowswellSelf-Checked Activities: Advanced UnderstandingNote: This section may be optional; follow your instructor’s directions.The free response test item accessed below is related to this unit’s concepts and content butwill draw from your prior Chemistry knowledge as well. It will challenge your knowledge of theunit concepts help you tie different concepts together and help you gain confidence inaddressing written response test items.Download: Free Response TestRespond to Question 6 parts a & bRead the Directions section carefully.Answer all parts of the question thoughtfully and concisely to the extent of yourability.Unless directed otherwise answer everything in essay form not bullets outline etc.For Scoring: Scoring GuidelinesSee Question 6 parts a & b6 7