1. Explain what the following statement means: “Correlation not causation”. In other words, why can’t you prove causation with correlational studies? 2. What is the “third factor” problem concerning correlational studies as it relates to inferring causation? 3. What is the “directionality” problem concerning correlational studies as it relates to inferring causation?
Suppose 36 participants complete an experiment where ads are presented subliminally during a task (e.g. Coke ads are flashed at very fast rates during movie ads). Participants are then given a recognition test of images of the ads, where two images are presented and participants must choose which of the two was presented earlier. Both … Read more