Please Reply To The Following 2 Discussion Posts

Please Reply to the Following 2 Discussion Posts




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Cells’ morphology, size, shape, and other characteristics are all interconnected. Differentiated eukaryotic cells differ according to their function. The fundamental organelles that are utilized to create energy, manufacture proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as to transport ions and other chemicals, are nonetheless shared by both. According to researches, several research have shown a substantial association between cell form and function (Wu et al., 2020).

Pathology uses morphologic changes to discover the etiology of illness, especially the gross and microscopic structural abnormalities that arise in damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Cells may adopt a variety of forms, and when reborn, they can either revert to their natural state or develop alternative cellular structures such as atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia (Miller & Zachary, 2017). As cells continue through their life cycle, they experience necrosis or apoptosis. A sort of intentional cell death known as apoptosis is essential for homeostasis, the involution of organs and tissues that are not activated by hormones or growth stimuli, as well as embryologic development. Necrosis is brought on by external dangers like as infection, malignancy, infarction, toxins, hypoxia, inflammation, or trauma. An acute swelling that should theoretically be reversible might become permanent and result in cell death if a cell is unable to recover from a severe or sustained assault (Miller & Zachary, 2017).


Case Study:  A 15 year old male presents after ingesting windshield wiper fluid to get high.


According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2021), windshield wiper fluids are hazardous and include methanol, which can cause blindness and death in even small amounts of level. The amount of moles of dissolved particles per kilogram of solvent is measured as osmolality. Methanol intoxication must be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. According Ashurst & Nappe (2022), methanol has a low affinity for alcohol dehydrogenase, metabolism is sluggish, and symptoms generally appear 12 to 18 hours later. Because of methanol’s reduced molecular weight, the osmolar gap (osmolarity) is more likely to increase (Kraut & Kurtz, 2007). An abundance of low molecular weight substances, such methanol, may be present if the osmolar gap is greater than 10. Hyponatremia (low sodium levels), which is most frequently associated with hypotonic circumstances, can also brought on by excessive osmolarity. Large molecules in the solution, particularly proteins, produce osmotic pressure, which is what is known as the oncotic pressure. As a result, patients with low oncotic pressure tend to accumulate in the tissues during methanol intoxication, which causes edema, inflammation, and frequent swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, trachea, and nasal cavity. The risk of breathing obstruction caused by edema exists as a result, especially in individuals with respiratory system disorders and ongoing allergic responses. It is well known that edema and respiratory problems are two of the most typical symptoms of methanol intake in patients (Ashurst & Nappe, 2022).




Cells are the basic building blocks of living organisms.  These “basic units of life” work together to form tissues, organs, and organ systems and when there are alterations and maladaptation within these units, development of disease can occur (Dlugasch & Story, 2021).  All cells have the same basic components despite having varying functions and features. The basic components of cells include the cytoplasm, organelles (including the nucleus), and cell membrane (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). The morphology of cells is important because it determines the functionality of the cell and how it will thrive in the human body.  Identifying the shape, structure, size and and form of cells is a process that helps us understand how cells form communities and develop into tissues, organs and systems.  I think of a single cell like a lego.  Once you add more legos together, they have the ability to form something useful. The function of one lego is not as important as the function of the structure created at the end of the lego building process; however each individual lego plays a role to support the greater structure.


Case Study – 15 year old male presents after ingesting windshield wiper fluid to get high. Windshield wiper fluid ingestion can cause methanol toxicity.  In and of itself, methanol has a relatively low intrinsic toxicity; however, it is metabolized to highly toxic compounds, particularly formaldehyde and for magic acid, which can cause blindness, coma, and metabolic disturbances that are often life-threatening (Pressman et al., 2020).



· Osmolarity: Osmolarity refers to the number of solute particles per 1 L of solvent.  This unit is best used to describe fluids outside the body and normal serum range is 282-295 mosm/kg (mmol/kg). The osmolal gap is a difference between the measured osmolality and the calculated osmolality.  The normal gap is about 6 mosmol/L (Dlugasch & Story, 2021).  Ingestion of windshield wiper fluid would result in a high (>10 mosmol/L) osmolal gap.  This elevated osmolal gap indicates there is an unknown solute present in the body.

· Sodium Levels: Sodium levels would decrease as water shifts from the ECF into the ICF, thus diluting the sodium levels.  Cells then begin to swell, causing inflammation in the body.  Brain cells are of particular concern in this situation.  Metabolic acidosis sets in.

· Oncotic Pressure: Oncotic pressure, also known as colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure that helps to retain water within the vascular space by way of proteins, usually albumin.  In this case, the ingestion of windshield wiper fluid can cause a decrease in the amount of albumin in the body which in turn would result in a low oncotic pressure.  A low oncotic pressure results in the inability to draw water into the cell, so the water stays in the interstitial space, resulting in edema (Dlugasch & Story, 2021).